Place chicken in a large stockpot with onion, garlic, carrots, celery, bay leaf, and peppercorns. Cover with water by about 2 inches. Season to taste with salt and bring to a boil. Lower heat, partially cover and simmer until chicken is cooked. Turn off the heat, remove the chicken from the pot, and when cool enough to handle, remove the meat from the carcass and set aside.
Strain the chicken broth and set aside.
Place chiles, onion, garlic, and tomatoes in a blender and blend until completely smooth.
Heat olive oil in a large stockpot until it shimmers. Pour chile puree in hot oil and saute until it turns a dark, brick red.
To finish, pour chicken stock into pot and add hominy and chicken. Taste and re-season with salt and pepper to taste.